The North American record of fossil conifers from the Upper Cretaceous and Early Tertiary is extensive. Most of these conifers have been assigned to the Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae. However, the internal anatomy of cones is only known for a few of these taxa. Two fossil pollen cones have been collected at the Late Eocene Appian Way Locality, just south of Shelter Point on the east coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Fossils are permineralized, and studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique and scanning electron microscopy. Cones are attached to stems that bear oppositely arranged leaves with a single vascular bundle and an adaxial resin canal. The cone axis bears decussate scale-like leaves that subtend and enclose the microsporophylls. Microsporophylls are peltate with upturned distal tips and a central resin canal. Three abaxial pollen sacs are born on each sporophyll, and contain abundant non-saccate, papillate pollen grains that are 13 - 20 m in diameter. The walls of pollen sacs are composed of thick-walled rectangular cells. These cones show closest similarities to those in the Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae. Curved papillae on pollen grains, the opposite arrangement of scale leaves, and the number of pollen sacs per microsporophyll suggest affinities with the genus Metasequoia. These cones are associated with numerous taxodiaceous leaf and twig remains at the locality that show similar anatomical characters to those of pollen cones, and will be the subject of further study in the attempt to reconstruct this conifer as a whole plant.

Key words: conifer, permineralization, pollen cone, Taxodiaceous