Studies of the 363 million-year-old Cleveland Shale of Ohio have revealed many lycopsid cones. Unlike the tiny cones of modern lycopods, these are all large, with central woody axis, showing an arborescent habit. While no permineralized cones have been found, the preserved compressions of these coaly films are being investigated. The sporophylls of a few cones and some pieces of the shale matrix around these cones were selected for study. Samples were chemically macerated using published paleontological techniques. Microslides were prepared using glycerine jelly or Permount. Many spores were found both inside the cones and from the shaly matrix around the cones. Algal cysts Tasmmanites were found only in the samples of matrix around the cones. The sporophylls of the cones showed clusters of spores attached to sporangia. Spores from the sporangia were round with triradiate marks and sculpturing on the wall. Spores from the matrix were round, triangular, and boat shaped with triradiate marks. However, with some exceptions, they have little affinity with the spores from the cones. It is likely that the cones had not opened to release the spores. The spores found in the matrix might have traveled from distant forests either by wind or water and deposited in the Cleveland Shale which also provided abode for the cones.

Key words: Cleveland shale, Devonian spores, lycopsid