AFZAL-RAFII, ZARA1 and RICHARD S. DODD2.* 1CNRS UMR 6100, Universite d'Aix-Marseille III, Marseille, France; 2Department Environmental Science Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.. - Population genetic structure in Pinus nigra subspecies salzmannii from southern France.
European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) is widespread from
North Africa through southern Europe, the Balkans and eastwards to
Turkey and the northeastern shores of the Black Sea. Throughout this
wide range, fragmentation of populations has undoubtedly led to
differentiation through isolation and through differential selection
pressure. Our population analyses of the western range of this species
using foliar terpenes had indicated the existence of three main
groups: ssp. nigra from Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Austria,
ssp. laricio from Corsica and ssp. salzmannii from
southern France and northern Spain. Chloroplast microsatellite data
confirm genetic differentiation of Corsican, Austrian/Italian and
French populations with Corsican populations the most distinct.
Populations from southern France are likely to have been seriously
modified by replanting, after exploitation, with preferred provenances
from Corsica and Austria. The degree to which native stands of this
species in the French Cevennes are genetically polluted by imported
provenances is unknown. We have identified stands of salzmannii that
appear to be more or less pure. These are growing on very harsh sites,
suggesting lack of competition from the exotic provenances. We have
also detected the presence of nigra and laricio
genotypes on adjacent, more fertile sites.
Key words: Pinaceae, Pinus nigra subspecies salzmannii, population genetic structure