Phylogenetic analyses of 10 chloroplast DNA regions including ndhF, rbcL, matK, ORF350, trnL intron, trnL–trnF, trnH–psbA, rbcL–atpB, trnK 5’ intron, and trnK 3’ intron from 48 selected taxa were carried out to address phylogenetic questions in the family Magnoliaceae. Eleven major clades were recognized with strong support in the subfamily Magnolioideae: (1) MicheliaElmerrillia–sect. Maingola–sect. Alcimandra–sect. Aromadendron, (2) subgenus Yulania, (3) Pachylarnax–sect. Manglietiastrum–sect. Gynopodium, (4) Kmeria, (5) sect. Theorhodon sensu stricto (excluding sect. Splendentes which was recently separated from sect. Theorhodon)–sect. Magnolia, (6) sect. Gwillimia–sect. Lirianthe–sect. Blumiana, (7) sect. Talauma–sect. Splendentes, (8) Manglietia, (9) sect. Rytidospermum sensu stricto (excluding Magnolia fraseri, M. macrophylla, and M. dealbata)–sect. Oyama, (10) M. fraseri, and (11) M. macrophyllaM. dealbata. Groupings were basically identical to those recognized in the previous ndhF study. However, the support for each clade was significantly increased in the extended data matrix based on 10 cpDNA regions. The time of divergence for major lineages was estimated, and the maximum rate of nucleotides substitution for overall 10 cpDNA regions was calculated to be 3.28×10–10 nucleotide substitutions per site per year. The molecular data strongly suggest that a taxonomic realignment of infra-familial delimitations and compositions should be considered.

Key words: cpDNA, Magnoliaceae, phylogeny, sequences