The genus Alloplectus (Gesneriaceae) ranges from Central America to Peru with a few species in the Lesser Antilles, but is most diverse in western Ecuador and Colombia. Members of this genus are herbaceous perennials that are an important component of the under story vegetation in lowland and transitional forests throughout the northern Andes, Central America, and lowlands of northwestern South America. The last detailed treatment of Alloplectus was in 1865 and current studies have been limited to species descriptions. Estimates of total diversity in Alloplectus range from 35 to 70 species. A preliminary molecular analysis utilizing ITS indicates that Alloplectus as currently circumscribed is not monophyletic. The currently recognized species of Alloplectus are resolved in two distinct clades. One clade of Alloplectus species is resolved as sister-group to Columnea and is characterized by the presence of resupinate flowers. The other clade of Alloplectus species is non-resupinate and groups with Drymonia. Resupination of flowers is an important morphological synapomorphy for Alloplectus sensu stricto that has not been previously recognized. The non-resupinate species of Alloplectus are most closely related to Drymonia, but taxon sampling within Drymonia is insufficient at present to determine whether they should be included in Drymonia or treated as a new genus.

Key words: Alloplectus, Drymonia, Gesneriaceae, systematics