Recent order-wide phylogenetic studies in the Myrtales strongly supported a clade comprising the three African taxa Oliniaceae, Penaeaceae, and Rhynchocalycaceae plus the Central and South American family Alzateaceae. Inter- and intrafamilial relationships however, remained unclear. A phylogenetic hypothesis based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences of most of the species within the clade will be presented and discussed in connection with important floral features. Preliminary results suggest a sister relationship of Oliniaceae and Rhynchocalycaceae, a clade which in turn is sister to the Penaeaceae. First results based on the chloroplast gene rpl16 suggest that intrafamilial relationships in Penaeaceae are different from traditional conceptions.

Key words: floral structure, molecular systematics, Myrtales, Oliniaceae, Penaeaceae, Rhynchocalycaceae