The Brazilian bamboo genus Apoclada has been extensively studied using both morphological and molecular techniques and has been found to be polyphyletic. The ndhF gene of the chlorplast DNA from all three species of Apoclada was sequenced and compared with existing sequences for several of its relatives. The data show strong evidence for polyphyly in Apoclada as it has been traditionally described. The two cerrado species form a clade but Apoclada simplex is more closely allied with the genus Guadua. Several morphological characters were also considered and give a congruent answer. Habitat preferences were modelled as well and show discrete spatial environmental characteristics for each species.

Key words: Apoclada, Bambusoideae, Gramineae, Poaceae